- The most complained about ad in Australia in 2010 was an ad from the Advanced
Medical Institute about erectile dysfunction. To advertise the effectiveness
of the drug, the ad showed a wife using her husband’s erection as a
step stool to reach something out of a high cupboard.m
- Ice cubes in beverage advertisements are typically made of acrylic so they
won’t melt under hot photography lights or move around. Bubbles are
made by adding detergent, and water is added so light will filter through
Pharmaceutical companies spend more on advertising than on research
- A York University study revealed that U.S. pharmaceutical companies spend
twice as much on advertising as they do on research.c
- The famous Marlboro Man ads began in 1955. The Marlboro Man actually included
a variety of masculine figures such as athletes, gunsmiths, and captains,
but the rugged cowboy image proved the most marketable. Three men who appeared
in the advertisements later died of lung cancer, earning the brand the nickname “Cowboy
- TV commercials during Super Bowl XLV in 2011 are estimated to have cost
$3 million for a 30-second spot.a
- More than $500 billion a year is spent on advertising worldwide.i
- By the time a person in the United States is 65 years old, he would have
seen an estimated two million television commercials.d
- In fashion advertising, women are often pictured lying on bearskin rugs,
wearing furs and feathers, or dressed in tight-fitting leather clothing.
Some researchers criticize these kinds of ads because they feature women
- Women’s bodies are often “dismembered” in ads and shown
only as “body parts.” This type of representation has been criticized
for objectifying women and contributing to the underlying culture of violence
- In 1900, the standard billboard was created in America, creating a billboard
boon along streets and highways.o
- Many researchers argue that advertising is the most powerful art form on
- Over $15 billion a year is spent in advertisements directed toward children
in the U.S.k
- Though the commercial “1984,” which launched the Apple Macintosh
computer, ran just one time on American television, during the Super Bowl,
it has had a lasting impact on advertising. Directed by Ridley Scott, the
commercial was the first example of “event marketing,” or when
a promotion deserves as much coverage as the product itself.b
- One Kirshenbaum & Bond sidewalk ad in New York reads, “From here,
it looks like you could use some new underwear.” This type of advertising
is termed “guerilla” or stealth advertising to label a breed
of “edgy” urban advertisements.h
- The first advertisement widely believed to be the first to feature a homosexual
couple aired in 1994 when an Ikea ad featured two male companions shopping
together for furniture.g
- A Disney ad which showed a woman with the words “lift my shirt to
see more” over her breasts was banned in 2009. It was an advertisement
for the film Adventureland.e
- Most watches displayed in advertisements are set to 10:10 because the hands
of the watch frame the watch brand name and they make a smiling face.g
- The American Psychological Association (APA) reports that children under
eight years old are not able to critically understand advertisements and
that they regard them as truthful, accurate, and unbiased.d
food companies (soda, fast food, and cereal) in the U.S. spent about
$1.6 billion in advertising in 2006.k
- In 2006, soda companies spent an estimated $492 million in advertising.
In contrast, the Milk Processor Education Program, which sponsors the “Got
Milk” ads, spent about $67 million.k
- The average child in America watches over 40,000 television commercials
in a year, or over 100 a day.g
Advertisements often target children's self-esteem
- Advertisers consciously try to create a ‘nag factor” by bombarding
kids with ads encouraging them to buy certain products in order to become
popular. American children ages 12-17 will ask a parent for products they
have seen on television an average of nine times until parents finally give
- In a national survey, more than half of the children who responded reported
that buying certain advertised products made them feel better about themselves.d
- Channel One delivers two minutes of advertising and 10 minutes of news to
approximately 7.7 million students. Over 27% of Channel One advertisements
are for junk
food and 10% are for military recruitment. Channel One also
advertises movies, TV shows, and video games with alcohol and tobacco use,
violence, and sex.g
- The very first U.S. paid advertisement was a 1704 ad in the Boston News
Letter which advertised an estate in Oyster Bay, Long Island.b
- Researchers note a correlation between sexual imagery in children’s
ads and an increase in eating disorders among girls.g
- In 2008, approximately $2.6 billion was spent on political advertising in
the U.S., the largest ever during a presidential campaign. Obama's campaign spent $70
million on ads for the primary and $240 million for the general election.
McCain's campaign spent $10 million for the primary and $126 million for the general
- In 2006, Microsoft spent over $11.5 billion on advertising. That same year,
Coca-Cola spent $2.5 billion, Yahoo spent $1.3 billion, eBay spent $871 million,
Google spent $188 million, and Starbucks spent $95 million.s
- In 2000, U.S. Internet advertising revenue was $8.1 billion. In 2011, that
figure jumped to $32 billion. In 2013, the figure is expected to reach
- Advertisers often use a technique called “affective condition,” which
means they take a product and place it next to other things consumers feel
positively about. For example, a detergent ad will juxtapose their brand
with babies, sunshine, flowers, or other similar items. Repeatedly showing
their brand with these items makes consumers feel good about the detergent
- Advertisers appeal to several common psychological themes to motivate people
to buy their products. Some of the most common psychological appeals are
to self-preservation, sex, self-esteem, fear, authority, and imitation.r
- Studies show that repeated exposure to a stimulus that is barely perceptible
creates an “exposure effect,” which increases positive feelings
toward the object. For example, even though most people do not click banner
ads, the ads still positively influence the way people feel about the product.
In fact, the “wear out” effect of banner ads did not appear even
after 20 exposures.t
- Food advertisements often use “food stylists” to style food
for advertisements. For example, food stylists for roasted chicken will pull
the skin tight on the chicken and sew it up with a needle and thread. Then
they will stuff the chicken with wet paper towels, which keeps the chicken
plump and creates steam. The chicken is then roasted just enough to make
the skin bumpy while the insides remain raw. The bird then is painted a golden
Children in advertisements are usually older than their target audience
- In advertisements for children, child actors are typically older than
the target audience. For example, a commercial for 8-year-olds will show
11- or 12-year-old models playing with an 8-year-old toy. Advertisers use
older children as role models, as an image of what younger children will
want to be like.g
- Microsoft allegedly paid the Rolling Stones $9 million to use their hit “Start
Me Up” in its Windows 95 advertisements. Additionally, unknown songs
by new artists can become hits overnight because of their association with
a popular advertisement. For example, Cansei de Ser Sexy’s “Music
is My Hot, Hot, Sex” became popular when Apple used their song to advertise
- The first American magazine advertisement appeared in Benjamin Franklin’s General
Magazine in 1742.b
- Life was the first magazine to make $100 million per year in advertising.b
- In 1938, radio surpassed magazines in generating advertisement profits.b
- Prerecorded advertisements became possible in 1956 with the invention of
- Interpublic, WPP, and Omnicom Group are the top three largest advertising
companies in the world.b
- Many kids are plugged in to some kind of media for more than seven hours
a day, which means their exposure to advertising is at record levels.g
- Because the Mars candy company found the character ET in the movie ET:
The Extra-Terrestrial so ugly, they refused to allow M&M’s
to act as a lure for the creature. Instead, Reese’s Pieces were used.
Sales for Reese’s Pieces went up 65% once the film was released.g
The "Think Small" ad is considered to be the most successful ad of the last century
- Doyle Dane Bernbach’s “Think Small” ad for Volkswagen
at the end of the 1950s is considered particularly brilliant because it took
a German car initially created for Hitler and successfully sold it to post-war
- A new kind of advertising called “viral advertising” uses blogs
and emails to promote a product. For example, Dove’s “Evolution
of Beauty” campaign was an overnight viral sensation when more than
a million people watched a time-elapsed video of a model being made beautiful
- “Ambient ads,” which legally and illegally advertise on unexpected
places, such as store floors, washroom stalls, or sidewalks, have been so
successful that marketing firms have actively sought out new and shocking
places to display their products. Researchers note that this use of “edgy” space
intensifies a sense of distrust and alienation because it makes people suspicious
that any human interaction may be a commercially staged event designed to
get us to buy something.h
- A new study finds that the best strategy for advertisers trying to persuade
a skeptical audience is to leave out facts and focus more on emotional ads.
On the flip side, it found that those who are less skeptical are more persuaded
by more information-based ads.f
- The 1970 Crying Indian advertisements helped usher in not only Earth Day
but also the Environment Protection Agency (EPA). It also motived 100,000
people in the first four months of the ad to request a booklet on how to
reduce pollution, helped reduce litter by as much as 88% by 1983, and is
described as one of the 50 greatest commercials of all time.g
- Before the printing press, advertisements were often vocal announcements.
The invention of the printing press in 1440 ushered in the advent of modern
- The largest group of advertisers is food marketers.g
- Controversy arose when ABC and Fox censored a sexy Lane Bryant ad for plus-size
lingerie but allowed a Victoria Secret ad to air unedited. Lane Bryant claimed
that there is a bias against plus-size women in lingerie.q
Victoria Secret has been criticized for promoting impossibly thin models
- Most Victoria Secret models in advertisements are a size 2, with a 34”-36” bust,
23” waist, and 34”-35” hips.g
- Advertisers are expected to spend $4 billion on Facebook in 2011, of which
$2.19 billion will come from U.S advertising.i
- Researchers report that women’s magazines have 10.5 times more ads
and articles promoting weight loss than men’s magazines do, and over
75% of women’s magazine covers include at least one article title about
how to change a woman’s body by diet, exercise, or cosmetic surgery.g
- Ronald McDonald was first introduced in 1963. In 2010, the advocacy group
Corporate Accountability International argued that the clown has hooked kids
on unhealthy food for nearly 50 years, creating an epidemic of diet-related
- Using sex to sell a product is not new. Advertisers have used sex to sell
products since the early days of modern advertising. For example, pictures
of naked women were placed in tobacco ads in the 1800s.g
Top Ten Slogans of the Century v
||Diamonds Are Forever
||Just Do Tt
||The Pause That Refreshes
||Tastes Great…Less Filling
||We Try Harder
||Good to the Last Drop
||Breakfast of Champions
||Does She or Doesn’t She?
||When It Rains, It Pours
||Where’s the Beef?
Common Advertising Techniques b,j,g
||Music and other sound effects add to the ad’s atmosphere, helps define the ad’s target audience, and acts as a transitioning element. Jingles are designed to stick in the audience’s head.
||Advertisers appeal to emotions that most humans experience, such as love, hate, and desire. Emotion is often the motivating factor for buying a product.
||A famous person is used to promote the product—for example, Michael Jordon recommending particular brand of underwear or athletic shoes.
||Appeals to the desire of most people to feel like they belong or that they are part of the winning side.
||Advertisers are legally required to tell the truth, but they often use misleading words such as “Part of . . .,” “The taste of real . . ,” “Because we care . . . “
||Ideas and text with positive connotations are associated with the product.
The Top 20 Advertisements of All Time u
||“Think Small:” Doyle Dane Bernbach
||“The Pause That Refreshes”: D’Arcy
||“The Marlboro Man:” Leo Burnett Co.
||“Just Do It”: Wieden & Kennedy
||“You Deserve a Break Today:” Needham,
Harper, & Steers
||“A Diamond Is Forever:” N.W. Ayer & Son
||“The Absolut Bottle“: TBWA
||Miller Lite Beer
||“Tastes Great…Less Filling”:
||“Does She or Doesn’t She?”: Foote,
Cone, & Belding
||“We Try Harder:” Doyle Dane Bernbach
||“Fast Talker:” Ally & Garagano
||Various ads: Jack Tinker & Partners; Doyle Dane
Bernbach; Wells Rich, Greene
||“Pepsi-Cola Hits the Spot:” Newell-Emmett
||“Good to the Last Drop:” Ogilvy, Benson, & Mather
||“99 and 44/100% Pure:” Proctor & Gamble
||“Do You Know Me?”: Ogilvy & Mather
||“Be All That You Can Be:” N.W. Ayer & Son
||“Fast, Fast, Fast Relief”: Ted Bates & Co.
||“Perception. Reality.”: Fallon McElligott
-- Posted June 10, 2011
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as Consumers.” Global Issues. November
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g Egendorf, Laura, ed. 2006. Advertising. New York,
NY: Greenhaven Press.
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j Markman, Art. “What
Does Advertising Do?” Psychology
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k Marr, Kendra. “Children
Targets of $1.6 Billion in Food Ads.” Washington Post. July 30, 2008. Accessed: May 9, 2011.
l Noe, Eric. “Did
Childhood-Obesity Worries Kill Disney-McDonald’s
Pact?” ABC News. May 8, 2006. Accessed: May 5, 2011.
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Ad Bothers Australia.” AdWeek.
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n Resnikoff, Paul. “The
Astounding Revolution in TV Advertising.” Digital Music News. 2004-2010. Accessed: May 5, 2011.
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p Seelye, Katherine Q. “About
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Cleavage Lane Bryant Lingerie Commercial Too Racy for T.V.?” April 22, 2010. Accessed: May 30, 2011.
r Stoklossa, Uwe. 2007. Advertising: New Techniques for
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Psychology of Banner Ads.” Ars
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